Answer the questions and prepare for the discussion on the topic

IV. SKIING AND SNOWBOARDING

Look through the scheme of the Olympicskiing and snowboarding events


2. Study the words and word combinations for the topic:

aerial акробатический прыжок
aerials лыжная акробатика (вид фристайла)
Alpine skiing горнолыжный спорт
angle угол
biathlon биатлон
binding крепление
boots лыжные башмаки
brake тормозить
carved parallel (turn) поворот на параллельных Answer the questions and prepare for the discussion on the topic лыжах
classic (stride) традиционный (попеременный двушажный) ход
control gates контрольные ворота
course трасса
cross-country races/skiing лыжные гонки
cross-country relays лыжные эстафеты
descend, descent спускаться, спуск
diagonal stride попеременный двушажный ход
downhill (skiing/slalom) высокоскоростной спуск
equipment инвентарь, снаряжение
evaluate оценивать
flip сальто
free (stride) свободный (коньковый Answer the questions and prepare for the discussion on the topic) ход
glide 1. скользить; 2. скольжение
grab 1. захватить; 2. «захват», грэб
halfpipe хафпайп (вид сноуборда)
helmet шлем
herringbone "елочка"
hockey/skate stop торможение боковым соскальзыванием
large hill (LH) высочайший трамплин
manoeuver движение, маневр
mass start масс-старт
miss 1. промахиваться, пропускать; 2. промах
mixed relay смешанная эстафета
mogul 1. могул (вид фристайла); 2. кочка (на Answer the questions and prepare for the discussion on the topic трассе для могула)
Nordic combined лыжное двоеборье
Nordic skiing северные виды лыжного спорта
normal hill (NH) средний трамплин
obstacle препятствие
penalize оштрафовать, наказать
penalty штраф, наказание
pole палка
prone position положение лежа
pursuit гонка преследования
quarter-pipe кватерпайп(препятствие в слоупстайле
rail перила (препятствие в слоупстайле)
reduce снижать, сокращать
relay Answer the questions and prepare for the discussion on the topic (race) эстафета
rifle-shooting; riflery стрельба из винтовки
safety measure мера безопасности
schussing спуск в основной стойке
skate (stride) коньковый ход
ski 1. лыжа; 2. кататься на лыжах
skiing лыжный спорт, катание на лыжах
skiathlon скиатлон
ski cross ски-кросс (видфристайла)
ski halfpipe ски-хафпайп (видфристайла)
ski jumping прыжкиналыжахс трамплина
ski jumping hill Answer the questions and prepare for the discussion on the topic трамплин (для прыжков на лыжах)
ski slopestyle ски-слоупстайл (вид фристайла)
ski track лыжня
slalom (giant ~, super giant ~, parallel ~) слалом (слалом-гигант, супер-гигант, параллельный)
slope склон
slopestyle слоупстайл (вид сноуборда)
snowboard сноуборд (доска для катания по снегу)
snowboarding сноуборд (вид спорта)
snowboard cross сноуборд-кросс (вид Answer the questions and prepare for the discussion on the topic сноуборда)
snowplough «плуг»
somersault сальто
spin вращение
stem 1. тормозить; 2. торможение
stride ход, шаг
stunt акробатический элемент, трюк
sunglasses солнечные очки (маска)
super combination супер-комбинация
target мишень, цель
terrain местность
traversing спуск наискось (траверс)
trick трюк
turning повороты
twist 1. делать вращение; 2. винт, вращение, твист
vertical drop перепад высот
wedge «плуг Answer the questions and prepare for the discussion on the topic»

Read and translate the text

SKIING

Skiing is gliding on snow using skis. Skiing is a popular form of recreation and competition in winter. It consists of Nordic skiing, alpine skiing, freestyle and snowboard. The governing body of the international skiing is the International Ski Federation (FIS) founded in Answer the questions and prepare for the discussion on the topic 1924.

Nordic skiingcan be divided into cross-country skiing, ski jumping, Nordic combined and biathlon. CROSS-COUNTRY SKIINGappeared in Northern Europe, where it was practical means of travel in winter. The first Olympic Winter Games in Chamonix, France, in 1924, included men’s cross-country skiing. A women’s cross-country ski competition Answer the questions and prepare for the discussion on the topic first featured in the 1952 Games in Oslo, Norway. At present, there are twelve cross-country skiing events at the Olympic Winter Games: six men’s events and six ladies’ events, including individual races and mass start races, the skiathlon, the relay, and individual and team sprints.

Cross-country skiing has Answer the questions and prepare for the discussion on the topic two basic propulsion techniques: classic and skate skiing, for which two different kinds of skis are used. Both techniques employ poles with baskets that allow the arms to participate in the propulsion. In classic (the "diagonal stride"), it is most typical to use the alternating poling technique when Answer the questions and prepare for the discussion on the topic the poles are planted alternately on the opposite side of the forward-striding foot. Skiers sometimes use kick-double-pole variant when the poles are planted simultaneously with every other stride. In the skating technique, skiers alternate skis away from one another at an angle, in a Answer the questions and prepare for the discussion on the topic manner similar to skating, and use double-poling.

Skiers climb hills, using "herringbone" technique, by widening the angle of the "V" and by making more frequent, shorter strides and more forceful use of poles. Turns, used while descending or for braking, include the snowplough (or "Wedge Turn"), the stem Christie (or "Wedge Answer the questions and prepare for the discussion on the topic Christie"), parallel turn, and the Telemark turn. The step turn is used for maintaining speed during descents.

The спорт of BIATHLON has its origins in the ancient hunting practices of northern Europeans. The biathlon is a combination of cross-country skiing and rifle shooting. It has Answer the questions and prepare for the discussion on the topic been part of the Olympic program since 1960.The Olympic Winter Games program has five biathlon events for men and five for women: individual race, sprint, pursuit, mass start race and relay; and there is also the mixed relay.

In SKI JUMPING, athletes jump from 105m normal hills and 140m large Answer the questions and prepare for the discussion on the topic hills. Men’s ski jumping has been a part of the Olympic Games since the very first Winter Olympics, in Chamonix in 1924. Women competed in ski jumping for the first time during the 2014 Sochi Winter Olympic Games. Four events make up the Olympic program: the men’s and women’s individual Answer the questions and prepare for the discussion on the topic normal hill competition, the men’s individual large hill competition, and the men’s team competition.

NORDIC COMBINEDevents include a ski jumping competition (1 jump) and a 10 km cross-country ski race. There are three men’s events in the Olympic program in Nordic Combined: the individual event Answer the questions and prepare for the discussion on the topic with a normal hill (NH) ski jump, the individual event with a large hill (LH) ski jump, and the team event, with two jumps from the large hill for each team member and a 4×5 km relay.Nordic Combined individual events have been part of the Olympic program since Answer the questions and prepare for the discussion on the topic the first Olympic Winter Games in Chamonix in 1924. The team competition was introduced at the Calgary Olympic Winter Games in 1988.

Alpine skiingappeared in the Alps. It first became part of the Olympic program in 1936. Ten events make up the Olympic alpine skiing program, five for men and five for ladies. These Answer the questions and prepare for the discussion on the topic include the downhill, slalom, giant slalom, super giant, and combined races. Different courses are prepared for the different events. The DOWNHILLevent features the longest courses and the highest speeds in alpine skiing, with athletes achieving speeds up to 120 km/h. In the SLALOM, athletes must ski a course marked Answer the questions and prepare for the discussion on the topic with flags and gates spaced much closer together than in the downhill event, giant slalom, or super giant slalom for quicker and shorter turns. In the GIANT SLALOM, the gates are placed farther apart than in the slalom, but not as far apart as in the super-G. In the Answer the questions and prepare for the discussion on the topic slalom and giant slalom, athletes must ski two different courses The SUPER GIANT (SUPER-G)incorporates aspects of both the downhill and the giant slalom. The COMBINEDEVENTS consist of one run of downhill and two runs of slalom. At some competitions the SUPER COMBINATIONis held. It Answer the questions and prepare for the discussion on the topic consists of one run ofdownhill and one run ofslalom. The downhill is sometimes replaced by the super-G.

In Alpine skiing, a skier following the fall line will reach the maximum possible speed for the slope. However, downhill skiing technique focuses on the use of turns to smoothly turn the skis from Answer the questions and prepare for the discussion on the topic one direction to another by using the stem methods. The three basic techniques of Alpine skiing are schussing, traversing and turning.

Freestyle skiingfirst appeared as a demonstration event at the Calgary 1988 Olympic Winter Games. The Olympic freestyle events include mogul skiing, aerials, ski cross, ski halfpipe, and Answer the questions and prepare for the discussion on the topic ski slopestyle. The MOGULevent is a descent down a bumpy slope. Athletes are required to perform two jumps on their way through the course. In the AERIALSevent, athletes complete special ski jumps. Athletes are judged on their technique for jump takeoff, jump form, and landing. The SKI CROSSevent Answer the questions and prepare for the discussion on the topic includes a qualifying round and a final round. In the qualifying round, athletes race individually down a course approximately 1000 meters long with turns and obstacles. The athletes with the best times are then divided into groups of four. The two top finishers continue to compete, while the losers are eliminated. In SKI Answer the questions and prepare for the discussion on the topic HALFPIPE, athletes perform on a halfpipe slope on freestyle skis, performing various tricks – somersaults, flips, grabs, and twists. In SKI SLOPESTYLE, athletes perform on a slope with various types of obstacles (rails, quarter-pipes, and jumps).

Snowboarding мейд its Olympic debut in 1998 at the Nagano Winter Olympics. There are Answer the questions and prepare for the discussion on the topic ten snowboarding events in the Olympic Games: men’s and women’s events in the halfpipe, parallel giant slalom, snowboard cross, slopestyle, and parallel slalom. The HALFPIPEcompetition is held on a special halfpipe-shaped course. Using the speed gained on the slope, snowboarders come up over the Answer the questions and prepare for the discussion on the topic rim on the other side of the pipe and perform acrobatic aerial tricks. In the PARALLEL SLALOMand PARALLEL GIANT SLALOMevents, two athletes engage in a head-to-head competition on parallel courses marked with blue and red flags. The SNOWBOARD CROSSevent takes place on a course мейд up Answer the questions and prepare for the discussion on the topic of various moguls, obstacles, banks, and jumps. In SLOPESTYLEathletes perform on a slope featuring various forms of obstacles (rails, quarterpipes, and jumps).

Skiing and snowboarding are very popularsports and pastime in winter in Belarus. Belarusian skiers have been winners of the Olympic Games and World Championships many times. Belarus Answer the questions and prepare for the discussion on the topic is proud of Alexander Popov, Alexei Aidarov, Oleg Ryzhenkov, Svetlana Paramygina, Aleksey Gryshin, DmitriyDashchinski, NadezhdaSkardino and others. Darya Domracheva became a national hero after winning three gold medals in biathlon at the 2014 Sochi Olympic Games.

Answer the questions and prepare for the discussion on the topic


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