In the summer the human population of Antarctica goes up to 2.500. In the winter, there are only 700 human beings on the whole continent. It is the last great “empty “ place on earth and people in many countries are beginning to think that it must stay that way. They want Antarctica to be Antarctica: The World Park. a world park: a place where nature will stay free of pollution and the changes that human beings bring. Many people want to keep Antarctica in its natural state, free of too many humans and animals from the outside.
The total area of Antarctica is 13,600,000 square kilometers. This is Antarctica: The World Park. bigger than the U.S.A. and Mexico together, and nearly twice the size of Australia. Here you can find the coldest place on Earth: the temperature at the Russian Vostok station can go down to 88° centigrade. Ninety- eight per cent of the mainland of Antarctica is under over Antarctica: The World Park. one kilometer thick.
Antarctica has 188 million birds. Ninety per cent of these are penguins. Two-thirds of the world's seals live in Antarctica.
People didn't know about the continent of Antarctica until 1840. No human walked on the mainland until 1895.
There is oil under Antarctic Antarctica: The World Park. waters and coal under the mountains. There are also many kinds of metals. But now there is an agreement between the world's most powerful industrial countries that they will not exploit Antarctica's oil and minerals for at least fifty-five years.
Scientists say that if there is mining and Antarctica: The World Park. drilling for oil in Antarctica it will have bad effects on the world’s weather.
Antarctica is the only continent on Earth where countries cannot take nuclear weapons. Visitors to Antarctica say it is extremely beautiful. One day you may visit the icy continent as a tourist. Some ordinary people Antarctica: The World Park. already go there by ships.
Д/З: составить топик на тему «Погода и климат. Экологические проблемы».
УРОК №18. Изобретения науки и техники в ежедневной жизни.
Modern technology has мейд the life more convenient. However, the life was better when there was less technological advancement. Do you Antarctica: The World Park. agree? Give reasons for your stand.
It is true that modern technology has мейд life more convenient be it long distance communication through mobile phones and emails or be it any other electronic gadget we use in our day to day life.
However, whether life was better when there was less technological Antarctica: The World Park. advancement is debatable. But it is true that the side effects technological revolution brings with it may sometimes make us feel the same.
Today, it is even hard to imagine what the life would be without television, computers, internet, cell phones, video games etc. But it is Antarctica: The World Park. a fact that society is going a little out of хэнд in terms of technology. Playing a game on PS3 rather than with the hard structures and blocks has reduced the imagination power of children. Imagination has been replaced with graphics and fallacies.
Television and computer have become the sole Antarctica: The World Park. sources of entertainment these days. People have forgotten that playing badminton with a real racket rather than on a computer screen is also an attainable task and much more helpful. On line shopping has taken away the fun of real shopping from one’s life. As a result, life Antarctica: The World Park. style has become so sedentary, with the ease of everything online that health problems have increased. Child obesity is spreading like an epidemic all over the world due to over addiction of children to technology.
One’s social like has also gone for a toss. You may have Antarctica: The World Park. five hundred friends in your Facebook list but it is hard to remember the birthday of your one “real” best friend of childhood.
If used in a balanced way, it cannot be denied that technology has become an integral part of our modern day living. It allows people Antarctica: The World Park. to keep in touch with their distant family members through phones, emails and now webcams. Distance education, online education has been мейд possible. People including children are more aware of happenings around them.
Hence, it can be concluded that technology has infinite benefits. The problem arises when it becomes an addiction and Antarctica: The World Park. starts monitoring our lives. Excess of everything is bad and so is the use of technology.
Д/З: приготовить презентацию на тему «Плюсы и минусы изобретений 21 века»
УРОК №19. Высочайшие технологии в современном мире.
High technology, often abbreviated to high tech (adjective forms high-technology, high-tech or хай Antarctica: The World Park.-тек) is technology that is at the cutting edge: the most advanced technology available.
Products currently considered high tech are often those that incorporate advanced computer electronics. However, there is no specific class of technology that is high tech—the definition shifts over time—so products hyped as high Antarctica: The World Park.-tech in the past may now be considered to have everyday or dated technology.
Perhaps the first occurrence of the phrase in The New York Times is in a 1958 story advocating "atomic energy" for Europe:"...Western Europe, with its dense population and its high technology..." A 1968 occurrence is about Antarctica: The World Park. technology companies along Boston's Route 128:
It is not clear whether the term comes from the high technologies flourishing in the glass rectangles along the route or from the Midas touch their entrepreneurs have shown in starting new companies.
By 1969, Robert Metz was using it in a financial column—Arthur Antarctica: The World Park. H. Collins of Collins Radio "controls a score of high technology patents in variety of fields." Metz used the term frequently thereafter; a few months later he was using it with a hyphen, saying that a fund "holds computer peripheral... business equipment, and high-technology stocks." Its first Antarctica: The World Park. occurrence in the abbreviated form "high tech" occurred in a Metz article in 1971.
The sector approach classifies industries according their technology intensity, product approach according to finished products.
Д/З: приготовить топик на тему «Изобретения науки и техники, технологии в нашей жизни», избрать одно Antarctica: The World Park. из направлений больших технологий и приготовить мини-проект.
УРОК №20. Режим денька студента.
TEXT A. I'm in the first year at the university, where I'm studying English. My elder sister, Betty, is studying history at the same university. Betty can organise her time wisely, whereas I do Antarctica: The World Park. not know what order I should do things in. I find it hard to get up on time, and usually I do not get enough sleep. I have to wind two alarm-clocks to make sure I do not oversleep.
My sister, an early riser Antarctica: The World Park., is awake by 7 o'clock, refreshed and full of energy. While I'm wandering round the kitchen, fighting the urge to go back to bed, Уравнения хим реакций my sister manages to have a quick shower, make her bed, put on make up, do her hair, eat a full Antarctica: The World Park. breakfast and set off to the university. It takes me an hour and a half to get ready. I have a hasty bite and rush out of the house. Even if I catch a bus at once I still arrive at the university 15 minutes late, which always makes me feel guilty Antarctica: The World Park..
My studies keep me busy all day long. I have 14 hours of English a week. I also have lectures and seminars. At lunchtime I meet up with my sister and we have a snack at the university cafe. After classes I make myself go to the library Antarctica: The World Park. where I spend about six hours a week reading for my seminars.
My sister and I come home tired. I always find excuses to put my homework off. Unlike me, my sister manages to do the housework and get down to homework. I like the idea of going Antarctica: The World Park. to bed early, but quite often I have to sit up late, brushing up on my grammar and vocabulary, though I feel sleepy. My sister says that keeping late hours ruins one's health. Of course, I agree.
As my sister and I do not get any time off during the Antarctica: The World Park. week, we try to relax on the weekends. One of my greatest pleasures is to lie in bed and read my favourite books. My sister is a sporty person. To keep herself fit, Betty goes for a run in the park; from time to time she Antarctica: The World Park. works out in the gym.
I hate staying in, and sometimes on Saturday night my sister takes me out to a concert or a play. Sometimes we go to a party or to a disco. But more often than not I end up catching up on my studies and my sister Antarctica: The World Park. goes out. I wonder how I manage to spoil my leisure time.
Every Monday when I awaken I think I should start a new life. I honestly think that I must become well-organised and correct my daily routine. I make plans to go to keep-fit classes Antarctica: The World Park., to do shopping with my sister, to do the cleaning and to do a hundred other good things. But then I remember that I have to call on my school friend in the evening, and I put off my plans till next Monday. It is always better Antarctica: The World Park. to start a new life in a week.
TEXT B.John Naylor, 24, is a successful businessman. Let's follow him through a typical day.
The alarm clock goes off at 7:00 a. m. John jolts out of bed at the same time. The automatic coffee maker kicks on in Antarctica: The World Park. the kitchen. He jumps in the shower, shaves, opens one of the half-dozen boxes of freshly laundered white shirts waiting on the shelf, finishes dressing, and pours a cup of coffee. He sits down to a piece of whole wheat toast while he nips through the Fleet Street Journal. It Antarctica: The World Park. takes him about 15 minutes to wake up and get ready. His briefcase in one хэнд and gym bag in the other, he hops in the car, ready to start the day.
He clocks in at exactly 7:45 a. m. He takes a seat in front of the computer and Antarctica: The World Park. prepares for hours of phone calls and meetings that occupy his mornings.
At noon John rashes to the health club where he strips off the grey suit and changes into his T-shirt, shorts and the latest in design running shoes for tennis. In an hour he Antarctica: The World Park. is sitting in the club dining room where he has scheduled lunch with a potential client. They discuss business over sparkling water, pasta and a cup of coffee.
At 2:30 p. m. he is back at his office, eager for several more hours of frantic meetings and phone calls. At 6:00 p Antarctica: The World Park.. m. John phones out for delivery of dinner to keep him going through the next two to three hours he'll spend at his office.
John gets home at 10:00 p. m. just in time to sit down to a bowl of frozen yoghurt and a reran of this season Antarctica: The World Park.'s most popular drama series before turning in.
Д/З: приготовить топик на тему «Как я провожу собственный рабочий и выходной день».
УРОК №21. Современные удобства.
In 1889, architect and author Louis. H. Gibson defined modern conveniences as "those appliances which make it possible for people to live comfortably Antarctica: The World Park. in a larger house. Examples of modern conveniences at that time included:
· Kitchen sinks with hot and cold running water and wastewater drainage
· The addition of bathrooms as separate rooms with sinks and toilets, also with waste water drainage
· A furnace
· Closets in bedrooms, bathrooms, hallway for linen, broom closets
· Gas lighting Antarctica: The World Park., stoves and fireplaces
· Icebox or refrigerator
The homes of the 20th century are much bigger than the homes of our family members from the 19th century, both in terms of square footage and number of rooms. Homes built at the beginning of the 21st century have 2-3 times more rooms than Antarctica: The World Park. homes at the turn of the 20th century. In terms of square footage, new homes built in 2000 are 50% larger than a home built in the 1960s. In the 20th century there were modernized home appliances like washing machines, dryers, dishwashers, microwave ovens, frost-free refrigerators, water heaters, air conditioning, vacuum cleaners Antarctica: The World Park., and irons. Electricity and innovative electronics products including stereo equipment, color television, answering machine, and video cassette recorders also facilitated modern life.
Д/З: приготовить мини-проект на тему: «Дома в 19, 20 и 21 веке».
УРОК №22-23. Жилищно-бытовые условия жизни.
There are many types of housing: detached houses, semi-detached houses, terraced Antarctica: The World Park. houses and flats. Some of the detached houses are cottages and bungalows.
It must be understood that a detached house can take on any form or style. It does not matter if the house is a bungalow, a cottage or a mansion. As long as it is not joined Antarctica: The World Park. to another house, it is a detached house. One advantage of a detached house is the fact that the free space surrounding the building belongs to the family. You can do whatever you would like to be done in your house. The disadvantage is that all repairs in the Antarctica: The World Park. house should be мейд by the owner.
A semi-detached house is a pair of houses that share one common wall. The two houses are built to mirror each other. One advantage of living in a semi-detached house is that there is still some privacy even if Antarctica: The World Park. one wall is shared by the two houses. A disadvantage is that you are responsible for the upkeep of your side of the house. Another disadvantage is that you cannot just plan repairs or renovations as you have to consider your twin house.
Terraced housing is also Antarctica: The World Park. known as townhouses. The origin of this type of dwelling was in the 17th century in Europe. A row of identical looking houses share side walls. In the past, terrace housing used to be only associated with the working class for this type of housing was cheap, small and had very Antarctica: The World Park. little privacy. As time went by, terrace housing became known as townhouses which were more associated with the rich.
One of the major advantages of terrace housing is that it is relatively cheaper than a semi-detached built in the same location. One great disadvantage is that there is Antarctica: The World Park. typically no yard or garden that comes with a unit. As two walls are shared, there is less privacy too.
A flat or an apartment is a part of a larger building. Such building is called an apartment building or a block of flats. A flat can Antarctica: The World Park. be a studio unit, a one-bedroom, two-bedroom or three-bedroom unit.
Д/З: составить топик на тему «Современные дома. Современные удобства.», приготовить мини-проект на тему: «Дом моей мечты».
УРОК №24-25. Современные сми.
The mass media play an important part in our lives. Newspapers, radio, TV and especially Internet inform us Antarctica: The World Park. of what is going on in this world and give us wonderful possibilities for education and entertainment. They also influence the way we see the world and shape our views.
Of course, not all newspapers and TV programmes report the events objectively, but serious journalists and Antarctica: The World Park. TV reporters try to be fair and provide us with reliable information.
It is true that the world today is full of dramatic events and most news seems to be bad news. But people aren't interested in ordinary events. That is why there are so many programmes and articles about Antarctica: The World Park. natural disasters, plane crashes, wars, murders and robberies. Good news doesn't usually make headlines. Bad news does.
Some people say that journalists are given too much freedom. They often intrude on people's private lives. They follow celebrities and print sensational stories about them which are Antarctica: The World Park. untrue or half-true. They take photos of them in their most intimate moments. The question is — should this be allowed?
The main source of news for millions of people is television. People like TV news because they can see everything with their own eyes. And that's an Antarctica: The World Park. important advantage. Seeing, as we know, is believing. Besides, it's much more difficult for politicians to lie in front of the cameras than on the pages of newspapers.
Still, many people prefer the radio. It's good to listen to in the car, or in the open air, or when you Antarctica: The World Park. do something about the house.
Newspapers don't react to events as quickly as TV, but they usually provide us with extra detail, comment and background information.
The Internet has recently become another important source of information. Its main advantage is that news appears on the screen as soon Antarctica: The World Park. as things happen in real life and you don't have to wait for news time on TV.